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Posts from the ‘non-fiction’ Category





  1. Jill Leovy examines one of the most disturbing facts about life in America:
  2. that African-American males are, as she puts it,
  3. just 6 percent of the country’s population
  4. …but nearly 40 percent of those murdered.
  5. This is a world that most journalists never cover
  6. …and most of America never sees.



  1. This book was researched and written in interval over 5 years.
  2. Los Angeles crime reporter Jill Levoy embedded herself in 2008
  3. ….in the 77th and Southwest squads LA.
  4. She shadowed homicide detectives.
  5. This is an impressive revelation about the
  6. …devastating  true story of LA crime, race and intimidation.
  7. One of the detective heroes is John Skaggs.
  8. His working life was devoted to one end:
  9. making black lives expensive, and worth answering for.

  1. Leovy tries to penetrate the mystery of the disproportionate
  2. …black homicide with her stats and surveys of case outcomes.
  3. This book was an eye-opener.
  4. #MustRead



Bobby Kennedy: The Making of Liberal a Icon



  1. Most of what Larry Tye tells us has been written before.
  2. Tye does an excellent job of taking the reader thru
  3. Bobby’s life and his political career in particular.
  4. Larry Tye includes new information gleaned from
  5. …RFK’s private archive that was opened in 2014.
  6. I just put the audio book on….and listened all day!
  7. Fascinating!


Last thoughts:

  1.  Larry Tye gives the reader a
  2. front row seat during at the back room drama of RFK years!
  3. Bobby was not an intellectual as his brother JFK.
  4. Bobby knew how to USE intellectuals!
  5. #MustRead or #MustListen
  6. Trivia: RFK’s favorite beer was Heinekin
  7. Trivia: RFK’s favorite cocktails were Daiquiri or Old Fashioned
  8. Trivia: RFK’s last child was born after his death.
  9. The baby girl was named Rory….the Irish version of Robert.


My notes:

NEW: RFK never forgave Edward R. Morrow in toppling Joseph McCarthy

NEW: According to RFK..McCartyism is Americanism…with its sleeves rolled up.

NEW: Joe McCarthy – RFK connection: I have never read about this time in RFK’s life. My knowledge of RFK began with 1960 and his brother’s presidental champaign. JM reminded RFK of his father. RFK’s loyalty to McCarthy grew out of the devotion to his father.  RFK and McCarthy had  many characteristics in common:
— able to be thoughtful to friends yet cruel to others
— able sensitive and yet insensitive
not able to anticipate the results of what he was doing

NEW: RFK took it upon himself to root out corruption in the Teamsters Union. But Tye explains that there was a thin line between fervour and fanaticism.
RFK vs Jimmy Hoffa was an explosive combination.
I did not know of how deep the toxic ongoing animosity  between these two men was.

NEW: 1 in 4 Americans were catholics in 1960…
yet Roman Catholicism was still a stigma in the 1960 presidential election.
In 2008 things had changed Obama’s race and not religion was the issue.

NEW: RFK turned down the offer of Attorney General in his brother’s cabinet, but after long deliberation, soul-searching and a talk with the patriarch Joseph P. Kennedy…RFK’s fate was decided.

NEW: Senators had the votes to defeat RFK’s appointment. LBJ was furious…this would be an embarrassment for the new Vice-President.
LBJ had to prove he could get the votes needed for JFK’s cabinet…even though LBJ LOATHED Bobby!

NEW:  RFK led the greatest investigative attack on organised crime ever seen in the USA. I have always thought…this put RFK AND JFK on a maffia ‘hit-list’.
RFK upset Joe Bonnano famiy in NY, the Patriarca crime family in Rhode Island, DeCavalcante crime family in NJ and worst of all….Sam Giancana of the maffia in Chicago. It is rumoured that Jimmy Hoffa had once said: “Somebody should bump this guy off (RFK).”
Yet in the book The Devil’s Chessboard (D. Talbot) an explosive, headline-making portrait of Allen Dulles, the man who transformed the CIA into the most powerful—and secretive—colossus in Washington, there was the suggestion that Dulles used his CIA contacts and was involved in the assassination of JFK…en perhaps RFK !
Will we ever know the truth?

NEW: During RFK’s three years as attorney general his office prosecuted 2 congressmen, 3 state supreme court justices, 5 mayors, 2 chiefs of police and 3 sheriffs …and ALL democrats!
RFK and JFK made many enemies!

NEW: Frank Sinatra….investigation was never triggered by RFK.  Why? There were too many links to the Kennedy family, political machine and JFK (…Frank often facilitated the supply of ‘women’ to visit JFK).

NEW:  The seeds for the Cuban Missal Crisis were planted two Octobers earlier (1959). Eisenhouwer quietly agreed to back Castro’s home-grown opposition. CIA drew op a plan in March 1960 to train and equip a paramilitary force of Cuban exiles. Castro’s welcoming of the Russian help in 1962 did not come out of the blue…it was a response to American agression. My memories about those ‘ 13 days’ in October 1962 are vivid. The political back round went way above my 11 year old head. Yet I sensed the tension that my parents radiated every time they listened to the news!

NEW:  WHAT THE… Kennedy had microphones planted in the cabinet room and taped the conversations with his ministers. No one had a clue that they were being taped! JFK was able to turn on the bugs with the help of a hidden button. JFK could turn it on or off…at his pleasure!  These recordings were JFK’s and RFK’s non-shareables.

The public found out about these tapes in 1973…and it took another 24 years to have the last of the Cuban Missal Crisis tapes to be released!


Kennedy and King

  • Author: Steven Levingston
  • Title: Kennedy and King
  • Published: 2017
  • #20BooksOfSummer



  1. Kennedy and King traces the emergence of two of the 20th C ‘s greatest leaders
  2. their powerful impact on each other and
  3. …on the shape of the civil rights battle between 1960 and 1963.
  4. These two men from  different worlds
  5. profoundly influenced each other’s personal development.



  1. I read and listened to this book.
  2. The audio brought the story to life with the whisperered voices
  3. …of Jackie Kennedy and Coretta King
  4. …JFK’s  Boston Kennedy accent
  5. …MLK’s booming preaching voice of King and
  6. ….Governor John Patterson of Alabama as the snarling white segregationist.
  7. His strong stand on race earned him the endorsement of the Ku Klux Klan.
  8. This book also brought back memories of  the 1960 – 1963 years.
  9. As a child still in grammar school….
  10. I was just realizing what was happening in politics in America.
  11. At the age of 10-11 yr …my understanding of the violence and
  12. …lack of civil rights in the southern states was nihil.
  13. This book shone light on the shadows in my memories  that I had
  14. …kept after seeing the struggle for civil rights spread out in
  15. ...Life, Look, and Saturday Evening Post magazines.
  16. Steven Levingston’s Kennedy and King
  17. …is masterpiece of historical narrative.
  18. Every page sparkles with the storytelling of those turbulent years….
  19. …that I tried to remember.
  20. I would not be surprised if this book at got nominated for a Pulitzer Prize.
  21. Perhaps…it could win!
  22. #MustRead….or  #MustListen


Last thoughts:

Here are a few notes I made high-lighting some facts that I was unaware of.

The book begins with the usual backround information about Kennedy and King’s youth and early careers  as senator of Massachusetts and Minister in Montgomery Alabama.

New: I remember the excitement around the 1960 election Kennedy vs Nixon. JFK’s face was on all the magazines flashing his famous Irish smile. What I did not realize at the time….
Kennedy between May 1955-October 1957 was secretly hospitalized 9 times (44 days) while he was launching his vice-presidential and presidential bids.

Kennedy was in pain (injuries to back, Addison’s Disease and many more aliments) for about half his life.

New: Kennedy did not know about the ‘real’ situation in the deep south even 8 months before the election in 1960. He had traveled all over Europe but had hardly set a foot in the ‘red states’ in the south.
Kennedy desperately wanted the backing of the prominent singer Harry Belafonte. The singer refused and told Kennedy that every hour he spent talking to him….he  SHOULD BE talking to Martin Luther King.

New: the role of Harris Wofford in the civil rights movement.

Harris Wofford white lawyer who studied in India. He was an advocate of Ghandi’s approach to politics and protest.

He and King spent many hours discussing ways to adapt Ghandi’s tactics to civil rights demonstrations. This was a powerful new form of political persuasion. King believed that the art of politics involved the skilful dramatic use of symbolic acts.

New: I did not know that MLK visited India…so he could meet with people who had worked with Ghandi.

New: One of the most prominent female civil rights activist….and I never heard of her. I would love to read a biography about Diane Nash! May-December 1961 demonstration Freedom Riders who desecrated interstate travel.


Ch 64 – The Constitution was color-blind…(and in my opinion…still is)

Ch 69 – 1962 MLK wrote in The Nation Magazine: ‘The President proposed a 10-year plan to put a man on the moon, ..yet we do not have a plan to put a Negro in the State Legislature of Alabama!” (Ouch!)

Ch 71 – I never heard of the Cosmos Club! The Cosmos Club is a private social club in Washington D.C. It endures as a an institution for the upper crust. Its rolls have included three U.S. presidents, two vice presidents, a dozen Supreme Court justices, 32 Nobel Prize winners and 56 Pulitzer Prize winners. Although the membership of more than 3,000 includes women and blacks, these are fairly recent developments in the club’s 132 years. The Cosmos Club didn’t end its male-only rule until 1988.



Slow down…


  1. I can collect all the LISTS in the world.
  2. I can join a million reading challenges.
  3. But a book all comes down to my mood.
  4. At the moment…I’m in a rant  mood.


  1. I’ve been so disappointed with a few classics on
  2. Modern Library’s  list of best 100 novel…so dejected.
  3. Who puts three James Henry books on  the list
  4. one was more than enough?
  5. Light-weights….
  6. The Postman Always Rings Twice,
  7. From Here to Eternity, Kim, Catcher In The Rye
  8. USA by Dos Passos and The Magnificient Ambersons
  9. …are good but not TOP 100 novel-ish.
  10. So I have decided to replace the Books I Dread
  11. with some books  I really want to read.
  12. Terry Pratchett was a very wise man…..



  1. I took the time to think for myself and choose books
  2. Some are diamonds…some are glass…
  3. but most important
  4. ….they are all books I want to read


Science fiction:  Fahrenheit 451 – R. Bradbury

  • I always thought that science fiction was just mumbo-jumbo.
  • How wrong I have been.
  • In 1953  SF moved from magazines to the novel genre.
  • There was a market for these books filled with veiled
  • commentary on the times.
  • Bradbury touches on  destruction of culture (book burning by Nazis)
  • public’s addiction to TV, the power of advertising and McCarthyism.
  • This is just the first SF book I will read.
  • I want to learn about all that I have been missing!


Science fiction:    The Left Hand of Darkness – Ursula Le Guin

  • I hope Ursula Le Guin wins the Nobel Prize one day.
  • It should be soon because she is 88 years old.
  • What is her strength?
  • She gives us a view from the other side…
  • showing us that that our perception of reality may be incomplete.
  • The author M. Chabon says Le Guin gave 21st C writers new tools
  • to work in the “borderlands,” the place where the fantastic enters literature.


Biography:  Orwell – M. Shelden

  • I found this book by accident.
  • Again…dreading books by George Orwell I thought
  • if I learn more about the man….reading his books would be easier.


Fiction:  1984 – G. Orwell

  • Ironically after reading the introduction to the  Orwell the biography
  • 1984 is a the only book from my ‘dread’ list that
  • …I am keeping on my list.


Fiction:    The Slow Natives – T. Astley


Short Stories:   several collections

  • I need a quick read  while
  • …drinking my morning coffee with the cats.
  • Short stories  have  never lost their artistic value
  • …but I seldom read them!
  • I am going to choose stories from several collections:
  • The New York Stories  – Edith Wharton
  • The Early Stories – John Updike 1/103
  • Complete Stories of – Dorothy Parker
  • The Rendezvous and other Stories – Daphne  du Maurier
  • Collected Stories – Katherine Mansfield
  • Complete Stories of – Flannery O’ Connor
  • The Collected StoriesWilliam Trevor


Crime fiction:    several choices

  • I will try yet again to read more crime fiction.
  • Le Carré – The Perfect Spy
  • Len Deighton – Berlin Game
  • Rex Stout – Some Buried Caesar – READING
  • Olen Steinhauer – An American Spy
  • D. Sayers – Strong Poison



  • I have several books written ‘about books, authors and plays’.
  • In the past I never allowed myself the time to read them.
  • Now it is time…to slow down and enjoy these books.
  • Approaches to Teaching the Plays of August Wilson – S. Shannon, S. Richards
  • Introduction to the American Short Story – M. Scofield
  • The Figure of the Detective – C. Brownson
  • Seamus Heaney – H. Vendler
  • The Politics: in Shakespeare’s History Plays – U. Kizelbach


Magazine:  The New Yorker

  • I have been reading this magazine since grammar school.
  • The literary content was beyond me at the time
  • …I just loved the cartoons.
  • Now every week the magazine arrives…and I ignore it.
  • Why?
  • No time to read it….I say to myself.
  • Now I’m making time to…
  • enjoy one of the best magazine in the world!
  • Issue 26 June 2017 – READ  cover to cover –  03.07.2017


Afbeeldingsresultaat voor terry pratchett quotes


  1. I find the slower I go…the more I want to do!
  2. Terry Pratchett said something that really stayed with me:
  3. “So much universe…so little time.”
  4. Clive Jones  poems Sentenced to Life is a book I cherish.
  5. In his title poem he said:
  6. “No birds touch down in the trees without me seeing them.
  7. I count bees.”
  8. A True lesson in slowing down…
  9. and end of rant.

Wainwright Prize short list 2017


  • If you are looking for a relax read this summer here is a great short list!
  • The Wainwright Prize  not really  promoted in USA, that’s a shame.
  • The Wainwright Prize is a literary prize awarded annually for
  • the best work of general outdoors, nature and UK-based travel writing.
  • The Running Hare – J. Lewis-Stempel – READ (review)





Walking the Nile



  1. The expedition to walk the length of the Nile was inspired by
  2. …explorers J. Speke, R. Burton, D. Livingston and H. Stanley.
  3. Wood was accompanied by guides (Ndoole Boston), journalists and friends along the  way.
  4. The expedition was commissioned into a UK TV Channel 4 that aired in January 2015.
  5. Wood detailed the trip in his book Walking the Nile.
  6. Wood was forced to abandon a 450 mile section in South Sudan. (civil war)
  7. He hired new guides, Moez and Turbo…together they finished the epic walk.

Milestone: (ch 13)

  • …after a  5 month walk
  • a symbolic moment
  • …when Blue Nile and White Nile meet.
  • Wood dips his hands into the water….finally he has reached The Nile.


Obstacle:  Meroe Dam  in Sudan…importance cannot be overestimated

  • Wood will never get near this  place in Sudan….he would be shot.
  • Wood would have to make a 1 week detour through the desert with 3 camels.


Pyramids of Meroe:

  • As Wood gazes on the Pyramids of Meroe
  • …built between 2,700 and 2,300 years ago
  • …Wood he feels very small and humbled.



  1. The book is not what I expected….
  2. This was my own fault.
  3. The title is clear Walking the Nile and
  4. I envisaged a trip on The Nile with more attention to the river itself.
  5. There is a pattern at times in the writing:
  6. Walk, enter town, recap past history about the village or river, Wood’s guide,
  7. Ndoole Boston adds his views, travelers meet the locals, eat, drink
  8. ….leave town and try to avoid phython snakes,
  9. ….croc’s an hippo’s, red mites, insects and feral dogs.
  10. I found chapters 10-17  to be the best.
  11. The writing came imbued with Wood’s doubts, his emotions
  12. …after the death of  a friend in Sudan from extreme heatstroke, Matt Power,
  13. …and Wood’s  longing to finish what he had started.
  14. Day 271 of a ninth month journey
  15.  I felt skin shivers…when I read Levison Wood finally
  16. plunged into the foaming surf of the the Mediterranean.
  17. Europe felt close and, with it, home.
  18. Well-done, Levinson, bravo!
  19. #GoodFeelingBook
  20. PS: if you can try to read the book and look at the Google images
  21. …so you can follow Wood’s journey in color!

Levison Wood, ex-British Army officer  (1982)




American Ulysses


  • Author R.C. White
  • Title: American Ulysses: A Life of Ulysses S. Grant
  • Published: 2016
  • Trivia: #20BooksOfSummer
  • Trivia: New York Times best seller



  1. The book is a biography so the structure is what you would expect.
  2. What you don’t expect is White’s ability to show Grant in 3- dimensions.
  3. Husband – military strategic genius – pragmatic president.


  • Family life in Ohio
  • Military study at West Point
  • Love affair with ‘my dear Julia’ Dent
  • Mexican-American War
  • Civil War
  • 18th president of United States
  • Retirement (30 month trip around the world)
  • Writing memoirs in collaboration with Mark Twain.


Why did I read this book?

My main purpose was to learn why Grant was so successful in the Civil War?

  1. I followed the chapters about the battles at Belmont, Fort Henry, Fort Donelson
  2. Shiloh, Iuka, Vicksburg, Chattanooga and Richmond.
  3. I used google maps and wikipedia to form an image of the battlefield.
  4. It was a fascinating read.
  5. Grant would scout the landscape to discover IF he could use it to his advantage.
  6. His emphasis was on:
  7. strategy: siege – classic…surround and just wait.
  8. (broke out of siege in Chattanooga; set up 12 mi siege line around Vicksburg)
  9. speed: delay only accrues credit for the defender (regroup/resupply)
  10. break the cracker line: (supply lines food and ammunitions)
  11. create diversions, cut telegraph lines, smash RR tracks and bridges
  12. Be alert: scurrying rabbits and squirrels indicated to the ‘pickets’ that
  13. enemy infantry were creeping closer through the brush.
  14. broad battlefield: keep enemy guessing where Grant would strike (Vicksburg)


What were some  dangers that Grant tried to avoid?

  1. Over confidence of troops after newspapers predict an easy victory at Shiloh.
  2. Miscommunication and mud:
  3. …terrain can delay messages and arrival of reserve troops.
  4. Intelligence:
  5. …danger of believing all deserters who bring news of enemy positions and size.
  6. Inflated egos of commanders (McClernand was Grant’s nemesis)
  7. Don’t ever leave HQ without assigning a second in command.
  8. Teach soldiers to live off land and stretch 2 days rations over 7 days!


Why was Grant such a great Civil War general?

  1. He was  always calm and decisive.
  2. He molded army and navy forces into one team.
  3. He listened and asked questions.
  4. He did not micromanage (trusted commanders).
  5. He seldom engaged in criticism after a battle.
  6. He avoid unnecessary insult to brave soldiers (surrender Gen Lee Appomattox)
  7. Whenever playing defense
  8. ……Grant always planned to go on offense, plan B.


Last thoughts:

  1. When I finished this book last night
  2. …and read about Grant’s final campaign (death)
  3. I felt I lost a friend.
  4. This was the most moving biography I’ve read in a long time.
  5. Personally, parts 1-3  were the best (youth, West Point, Civil War).
  6. Parts 4-6 (Reconstruction,  18th President, World tour) were less interesting.
  7. What a great general
  8. …. he won the Civil War and impressed us with his humility.
  9. #MustRead

Mad Pilgrimage of the Flesh



1. Explain the title. In what way is it suitable to the story?
The title refers to Williams’s frequent trips to the artsy enclave of Provincetown Massachusetts. The Pilgrims first landed near the site of modern Provincetown on the tip of Cape Cod in November 1620 before moving to Plymouth. They made a pilgrimage for religious freedom, Williams made his his pilgrimage for the the animated Greek male marble sashaying around the P-town dinner party circuit.


2. What sort of conflict confronts Tennessee Williams?
a.external – Williams is forever battling between the destructive (pills, alcohol ) and creative (plays).
b.internal – He tires to free himself from his mother’s puritan repression, while trying to win the affection of distant, dismissive and combustible father.


3. How is the conflict resolved?
As soon as Williams started his writing (won 1000,— Rockefeller Scholarship) he left home.
He had to leave the unsayable secrets (sister Rose slowly sinking into madness), the sense of masquerade (parents toxic marriage) and the palpable emptiness.

4.  How does the author reveal Williams to the reader?
Conversations with partners (Frank Merlo), producers (Elia Kazan) and parasites ( other riff raft that hung on to Williams’s coat tails especially Maria Britneva). Lahr has made an extensive use of the notes and personal diaries of Tennessee Williams.


5. Did you identify with any of the characters in William’s plays?
No, I couldn’t identify with the characters. Luckily I did not have a father “who fell in love with distance (pg 36) or a prim and proper mother who suffocated him in her ‘haunted household (pg 33).


6. Does this story contain any symbolism?
Glass Menagerie: The title represents the ‘famlly’s fragility’ (William’s family). The decor on stage, the fire escape, alley and secondhand furniture represented Tennessee’s existence in St. Louis Missouri.
Street Car Named Desire.: But I found the most profound symbolism in SCND:
Blanche DuBois asks for directions to her sister’s apartment. She must take two streetcars one named ‘Desire’ the other ‘Cemeteries’ and she will be at her sister’s address ‘Elysian Fields’ ( mythological land of the dead).
Blanche is literally and figuratively at the end of the line. (pg 121)
Blanche DuBois is Tennessee Williams who longs for the safety of embrace for the release of unhappiness ( last line as she falls into the arms of a doctor who takes her to a mental institution) “ “I’ve always depended on the kindness of strangers.”

7. Was there a villain in the story?
Tennessee William’s mother: She boasted “ the only psychiatrist in whom I believe is our Lord” (pg 55). She lodged a paranoia and terror in her children. She changed Tennessee’s behaviour and drove Rose her daughter into madness.


8. Can you find any examples of figurative language?
The plays are the literary works that Williams will be remembered for, but I could his poems are capable of arousing deep emotion. When Williams felt he was living on “borrowed creativy” he wrote this poem to shape his lack of inspiration.

“Old men go mad at night, but are not Lears
There is no kingly howling of their rage, their grief, their fears dementedly, […]
No title of dignity, now, no height of old estate, give stature to the drama

Ungrateful heirs, indeed! Tier treacherous seed
turns them away from more than tall gold-hammered doors:
Exiles them into such enormous night
skies have no room for it

And old men have no Fools except themselves.


9. What do you think the purpose of the Tennessee Williams was by writing his most famous plays (Glass Menagerie, Streetcar named Desire, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and Sweet Bird of Youth) ?
Williams used his plays to enter an imaginary world: “ Suddenly I found that I had a stage inside me: actors appeared out of nowhere…and too the stage over.” ( pg 34).
The driving force, impulse and impetus for writing was to break free from his dysfunctional family.
The comparison between his plays and his childhood was the BEST part of the book.
Mother’s monolithic puritanism was the most damaging element in Tennessee’s life
In in my opinion. his mother was more damaging than the pills (when TW died they found 13 bottles of prescription drugs, Aldomet, Zyloprin, Reglan, Seconal etc) and alcohol.


10. Does the story contain a single effect or impression on me?
Of course the brilliant rise and tragic fall of Tennessee Williams is the first impression I experienced. He used sex as ‘spiritual champagne’ and Rx prescription pills for his blues. By being desired he was empty of need. (pg 88).
The second impression and one of the most important reasons to read this book is my new understanding of how a play is written, painstakingly re-written several times and masterly staged in collaboration with the director.


I was deeply impressed by the life of Tennessee Williams.
Of all the characters he created it I think
Alma in Summer and Smoke is the best representation of the playwright.
Once she casts off her parents and the rectory, the serenity she finds is not the peace of heaven but the bliss of pickups and pills. (pg 99)

What is the line in his plays that made a lasting effect of me?
Summer and Smoke:

“The prescription number is 96814” she says in the finale.
“I think of it as the telephone number of God!”



The Republic

What is The Republic?
This is one of the books that changed the world.
I refer you to the link on wikipedia for an overview.
This subject matter demands reflection
Be prepared to think..and make up your own mind.
The metaphors, allegories and explanations stay the same
…but the  interpretation is different now than 2400 years ago.
Times have changed.
Each person will have their own reaction to the book.
Estimated reading time:3 hours per book!
Read summary then  listen audio book while reading.
Reading schedule:
I could only read 1 or 2 books a day.
Conversation between Socrates and a group if his friends
#MustKnowWord: Dialectic = exchange of logical arguments

What  do I think was Socrates’ most interesting arguments?
Books 1 -5  Justice
Socrates defines justice in books 1-5
These were exhausting reads because Socrates goes into  so much detail.
Three types of justice were mentioned by Socrates’s friends:
— is  paying back debts — is fulfilling obligations — is helping friends fight their enemies.

Justice: in which category do you put it?
Good for its own sake:  like chocolate…a harmless pleasure.
Good for its own sake + its consequences:  like health…good now and in the future.
Good ONLY for consequences: like physical training….unpleasant – but good in due course.
Socrates defines justice otherwise:
Justice is a virtue…not just the adherence to a rule (…like paying our taxes!)
Justice is the result of a state or soul that is in order.
State: when rulers make laws – police carry out laws – people obey authority = justice
Soul: when reason +  spirit work together to keep desire in check =  justice

Books 6 – 7 Philosopher is the best leader
Socrates makes one of the most important claims of the book:
Only the philosopher has knowledge…the rest have opinions!
Knowledge is: ‘what is’
Ignorance is: ‘what is not’
Opinion is: (in the middle) =  ‘what is + what is not’….thus nothing!

Socrates relates a most beautiful and famous metaphor in Western philosophy:

Allegory of the cave.
Allegory illustrates a philosophers transition
..from theory to  practical involvement in the state.
Philosopher has been outside the cave – in the light of external world.
Philosopher must go in to the cave and converse with those living in the shadows.
Philosopher struggles to work in practical politics.
Philosopher  struggles to explain his points to people
…who have no understanding of philosophical concepts.

Books 8-10  Democracy vs rule by experts
Socrates lists forms of government from most just  to unjust
Timocracy (warrior)
Oligarchy (wealthy)
Democracy (majority)
Tyranny (dictator)

DEMOCRACY is the worst form of government!
Plato distrusts the majority.
Each person does what they like with no concern for others.
There is no unity.
A proper system of government must exclude the general public from decision making.
A government should be undertaken by an elite who are trained to govern.
The key to building a good society is a trained  class of people
who will carry out the government functions.


Well, if  this book  doesn’t make your head spin nothing will!
But don’t let that discourage you….keep reading
…the book gets easier to understand!
Socrates makes use of clever words then suddenly his
conclusions will baffle you!
Socrates’ argument  formula: A=B – B=C – thus… A=C.
Next example: sounds like a paradox…but Socrates convinces otherwise!

A man  who is corrupt….who WE THINK to be  honest  =  model citizen who exploits others.
A man who is honest … who WE THINK  to be corrupt =  unfairly punished
Good men (appear to be honest) …are our enemy
Bad men (appear to be dishonest)… are our friends.
It is not justice that is beneficial to a man….
but the appearance  of justice!

I learned from Socrates that the happiest life is just one.
To achieve a happy life….reason must rule one’s soul.
Aristotle will take it one step further in Ethics.
He will explain the difference between theoretical reason (philosophy)
…and practical reason.

Last thoughts:
This book was a challenge.
…and I need to take a break from philosophy for a awhile.
The book was not entertaining….but enlightening.
Republic is a classic.
I couldn’t grasp or agree with  everything.
I would recommend it…but be prepared to feel exhausted after each chapter!
Score: 5



  • Author: H. Janssen
  • Title: Mondriaan
  • Published: 2008
  • Table of contents: 285 pages


  1. It has taken me many years but I finally have learned
  2. about Piet Mondriaan’s paintings.
  3. Mondriaan was convinced that art is
  4. not instinctive – continuing evolution in art
  5. but intuitive where the artist leads art to its purest form.
  6. All the paintings and drawings by Piet Mondiraan (1872-1944)
  7. in the Gemeentemuseum Den Haag (The Hague) are discussed.
  8. Mondriaan was a firm believer that
  9. ….everything evolves towards the positive, the good.
  10. His art progressed from beautiful landscapes
  11. to combinations of curved, vertical and
  12. ….horizontal lines to capture images of nature.
  13. Mondriaan’s greatest work of art is the jewel in the crown of
  14. the museum in The Hague: Victory Boogie Woogie (1942-1944)
  15. I learned by reading about Mondriaan’s art the each work
  16. had an objective side, the beauty of the painted object
  17. and a subjective side, the expression of  Mondriaan’s emotions.
  18. Mondriaan was a complex man.
  19. He loved jazz, the tango and cafés
  20. ….but struggled with his Dutch puritan backround.
  21. He suffered from everything that he thought was beautiful.
  22. He loved the sun
  23. but wanted a house built without windows.
  24. Here are some of my favorites….
  25. Borderij bij Duivendrecht  (farm)
  26. Duin (Dune)
  27. Chrysant
  28. Victory Boogie Woogie

Piet Mondriaan (1872-1944)

MONDRIAAN zelfportrait b865bf31ae61fac2b13cd56368506d5863fdc63d